The Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics Laboratory Service of the Instituto Cardiovascular of the FCV performs genetic compatibility tests between receptor and donor, as a support to the services of solid organ transplants and family genetic compatibility studies in bone marrow transplants.
The importance of the Histocompatibility Laboratory in the solid organ transplant programs is to carry out the HLA typing to determine the compatibility level that the recipient/donor couple exhibits for the transplant. It is known that the level of HLA compatibility represents a positive effect on kidney transplantation and the decrease of rejection episodes and its impact on the survival of the grafts.
HLA molecular typing is a test that evaluates proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLA), which are found on the surface of almost every cell in the human body. HLAs are found in large quantities on the surface of white blood cells and help the immune system tell the difference between body tissues and substances not in the body, hence their importance in determining antigenic compatibility between donor and receptor.
The HLA allele identification allows for the selection of donor and receptor compatibility for organ and bone marrow transplant programs. A, B, and DR antigens are the most studied and important in clinical transplantation, which is very useful in the clinical management of the patient, therefore, when the HLA between the recipient and the donor is identical (two haplotypes), this benefit is translated into an increase in the survival of the graft, decrease of rejection episodes, as well as reduction in the number of immunosuppressive drugs. In the case of genetically unrelated individuals such as the cadaveric donor, it is not possible to identify haplotypes and one speaks of the number of antigens or alleles that they share.
Additionally, the HLA test is used to search for alleles associated with autoimmune diseases (ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, arthritis, among others).